Version 1.7.5 released Sun Feb 17 2019
- Add Markowitz-ordered Gaussian elimination.
- Avoid un-normal zeros in matrix::solve().
- Accept exprseq arguments in lsolve(eqns, vars).
- Add overload of matrix::rank(solve_algo).
- Fix case in G_do_hoelder with real x values which are not cl_R.
- Fix an elusive bug in expairseq/add ctor, introduced in 1.7.0.
Version 1.7.4 released Mon Feb 19 2018
- Fix ABI compatibility with 1.7.[0-2] (broken unintentionally in 1.7.3).
Version 1.7.3 released Thu Feb 1 2013
- Speed up some corner cases of polynomial factorization.
- Speed up some corner cases of gcd computation.
- Speed up factorization of pre-factored polynomials.
- Make matrix::solve() work with hidden (non-normal) zeros.
- Fix bug in evaluation of real and imaginary parts of powers.
- Fix some LaTeX output, add new function symbol::get_TeX_name().
Version 1.7.2 released Tue Jan 2 2017
- Fix memory leak in operators returning relationals, introduced in 1.7.0.
- Make macro GINAC_DECLARE_REGISTERED_CLASS() work outside namespace GiNaC.
- Fix some build issues.
Version 1.7.1 released Sun Oct 2 2016
- Fix crash in basic::subs(), visible in classes which don't override it.
- Fix convergence failure in Li_projection.
- Fix cliffor_bar() and clifford_star().
- Improve performance of clifford_to_lst().
- Fix compilation issues, reduce compiler warnings.
Version 1.7.0 released Sat Apr 30 2016
- Make use of C++11 features:
- Use new language features 'auto', 'nullptr', 'constexpr', range-based for loops, the contextual keyword 'override', static 'noexcept' operator, etc.
- Add initializer list ctors for container<>, lst and nested initializer lists ctor for class matrix.
- Add many rvalue reference overloads for ctors from std containers. (Note that whether they really speed up things depends on whether evaluation leaves the container unchanged or not.)
- Rvalue reference overloads for ctors from std containers made it possible to remove the manual 'discardable' hack and std::auto_ptr<T> for good.
- New dynallocate<T>(args...) helper functions obsolete manual allocation on the heap and setting the dynallocated status flag.
- Got rid of C++98ish algorithm features (bind2nd, etc.) and replaced them with lambdas.
- Make add::eval(), mul::eval() more careful so they return an evaluated,
canonical expression without compromise.
- Remove 'level' argument of all .eval() methods. This has become possible by ensuring that add::eval() and mul::eval() evaluate their own structure without compromise (this was not guaranteed before). If all ex are evaluated, any object which is an aggregate of such ex will only ever have to evaluate itself, obsoleting the need for recursing.
- Remove 'level' arguments of all .evalf() and .normal() methods. They were modeled after the .eval() methods.
- Make relational::rhs() and lhs() nonvirtual.
- Add support for power::info(info_flags::real).
- Add fderivative::derivatives() method.
- Remove broken info_flags::algebraic.
- Remove unmaintained support for Cint.
- Remove unfinished code for hash table-based expairseq.
- Remove deprecated ex::to_rational(lst) and ex::to_polynomial(lst).
- ginac-excompiler installs in $LIBEXECDIR now, not in $BINDIR.
- Many minor performance enhancements.
Version 1.6.7 released Mon Feb 29 2016
- Fix elusive bugs in sqrfree(), normal(), numer(), and denom().
Version 1.6.6 released Sun Dec 20 2015
- Fix elusive bug in add::eval().
- Several minor performance enhancements.
Version 1.6.5 released Mon Jul 27 2015
- Fixed pow(+(...),2).expand() where the sum contained roots of rationals.
- Speed-up pow(+(...),n).expand() where n>2.
- Fix a crash in PolyLogs of rational numbers.
Version 1.6.4 released Fri May 8 2015
- Fixed pow(+(...),2).expand() where the sum contained roots of rationals.
- Various improvements for info(info_flags::nonnegative).
- Make power::expand() (x*p)^c -> x^c * p^c, if p>0.
- Fixed normal() where nested functions occur multiple times.
- Add optional explicit derivatives to functions and use it
in abs(), imag_part(), real_part().
- Evaluate abs(z)^(2n) -> z^n * conjugate(z)^n.
Version 1.6.3 released Thu Nov 27 2014
- New expand_options::expand_transcendental. GiNaC will apply additional
rules when expanding expressions if this option is specified, i.e.
- log(a*b) -> log(a) + log(b)
- exp(a + b) -> exp(a)*exp(b)
- Functions can define a custom expand() and info() now.
- Automatically rewrite (x^{-1})^c -> x^{-c} for positive c.
- Transform abs(x)^n -> x^n if x is real
and n is even.
- Improved power::info(): power with a real base and even exponent
reports that it's non-negative.
- Fixed spurious match failure due to expairseq::match() bug:
> match(sin(y)*exp(b)+sin(x)*exp(a), sin($0)*exp(a)+exp(b)*sin($1))
FAIL
- Fixed power::is_polynomial() and mul::is_polynomial()
computation.
- factor_univariate correctly handles polynomials over rationals
(no segfaults any more).
- Fixed an infinite loop in factor_multivariate due to incorrect
handling of polynomials having a leading coefficient being a sum with a
non-trivial integer content.
- Fixed numeric evaluation of generalized multiple polylogarithms for real
and negative argument.
- Avoid calling log(1-x) in numeric evaluation of classical
polylogarithm.
- Fixed numeric evaluation of multiple polylogarithms (correctly set
the signs of the imaginary parts in the intermediate expression).
- Fixed numeric evaluation of Nielsen polylogs for arguments close to
the 6th root of unity or its conjugate.
- Avoid infinite recursion in series expansion of logarithm.
- numeric::info(info_flags::nonnegative) correctly handles complex
numbers with non-zero imaginary part.
- Fixed several build issues:
- libreadline and dlopen() misdetection.
- multiple definition of symbol on MinGW.
- auto* tools and texinfo being unhappy in various ways.
- GiNaC can be built with CMake now.
Version 1.6.2 released Sun Nov 6 2011
- Fixed the parser to read GiNaC::lst again.
- Fixed a compile warning (relevant to openSUSE build).
- Fixed a bug concerning the subsitutions in indexed expressions
(subs_options::no_index_renaming was ignored).
Version 1.6.1 released Mon Jul 18 2011
- Fixed several internal assertions for the debug version of GiNaC.
- More verbose report of (auto-)configuration problems.
- Fixed a compile problem with ginsh using gcc 4.6.
Version 1.6.0 released Sun May 22 2011
- Fixed compilation issues with clang.
- Fixed compilation issues with VC++.
- Fixed a segfault in fsolve() and improved its numerical algorithm.
- Fixed several memory leaks in power::eval().
- Fixed the substitution algorithm that led to wrong results (exp(log(x))->x).
- Fixed a bug in add:eval() (real_part() had returned wrong results).
- Fixed infinite loop bug when unarchiving realsymbol and possymbol.
- Fixed bugs in the GCD code.
- Fixed empty string bug in symbol::get_name().
- Fixed bugs concerning STL vector sizes that can potentially cause segfaults.
- Fixed a bug in is_polynomial().
- Removed autogen dependencies.
- Improved simplify_indexed() algorithm.
- Changed the connection between library version and package version.
- power::series() can handle now more expressions with singularities in the exponent.
- Added conjugate() methods to functions cosh, sinh, tanh.
Version 1.5.8 released Tue Jul 06 2010
- Changed default behaviour of conjugate() for user-defined functions to avoid
wrong evaluations. A user-defined conjugate_func must now be explicitly registered.
- Fixed: Parser now handles abbreviations as advertized in the manual.
- Fixed two bugs in the GCD code (one infinite loop, one miscalculation).
- Fixed dangerous iterator use.
- Fixed a memory leak in excompiler.
- Fixed several syntax issues wrt to gcc 4.5 and wrt to compile option -std=cxx0x.
- Fixed a wrong URL and a texinfo problem in the manual.
- Added degree_vector() utility function.
Version 1.5.7 released Mon Mar 29 2010
- Fixed a bug in the GCD code (infinite loop in pgcd()).
- Fixed a bug in atan2() (division by zero error for atan2(x,0) if x is a negative and composite term).
- Products now correctly set info_flags::negative and info_flags::negint.
Version 1.5.6 released Thu Jan 28 2010
- Fixed compile problem with gcc 3.4.
- Improved excompiler: The ginac-excompiler script will only be installed if
excompiler is supported and enabled.
Version 1.5.5 released Wed Nov 04 2009
- Correct libtool versioning.
Version 1.5.4 released Mon Nov 02 2009
- Default parser now can again read in user defined classes.
- Add mul::info() and add::info() support for numeric
info_flags
(GiNaC now can detect that the sum or product of a number of
positive expressions is again a positive expression).
- Fixed cast that caused compile error on 64bit machines.
- Fixed incorrect uses of STL iterators.
- Removed subdirectory debian.
- Output LaTeX-symbols using \mathrm, instead of \mbox.
Version 1.5.3 released Thu Jul 30 2009
- The parser now understands user-defined functions by default. The parsed identifier
names can now contain underscores.
Version 1.5.2 released Fri Jul 10 2009
- Fixed documentation of return_type_info().
- Fixed cstdio include issue.
- GiNaC now requires at least version 1.2.2 of cln.
Version 1.5.1 released Tue Feb 25 2009
- Fixed compiling problems with GNU g++ 3.4.
- Work around weird C++ RTTI behaviour on woe32 so GiNaC works on MinGW again.
Version 1.5.0 released Tue Feb 17 2009
- Added polynomial factorization.
- New, faster (recursive descent) expression parser.
- Faster GCD computation.
- gcd() now allows the user to override (some of the) heuristics.
- Writing extension classes is simpler now:
- Replaced custom RTTI by standard C++ RTTI.
- Definition of archiving methods now optional when declaring a new GiNaC class.
- Fixed recursion in polynomial divide that caused a significant slowdown in sqrfree().
- Improved lsolve() of systems containing non-numeric coefficients.
- Removed implicit conversions from cl_N to numeric.
- Improved configuration and compatibility.
Version 1.4.4 released Fri Nov 07 2008
- Fixed a bug in the multiple polylogarithms Li/G that caused imaginary parts of the arguments to be ignored.
- Fixed archiving of complex numbers.
- Made the behaviour of class function more consistent with respect to ncmul::eval().
- Fixed a bug in power::is_polynomial.
- Improved heur_gcd() so it can handle rational polynomials.
- Improved build scripts.
Version 1.4.3 released Fri Apr 04 2008
- Fixed bug in numerical evaluation of multiple polylogarithms and alternating multiple zeta values introduced in version 1.4.2.
- Nielsen polylog now invalidates its lookup tables in case the precision (Digits) has been changed.
- Added new checks for recent bugs in the numerical evaluation of Li and zeta.
Version 1.4.2 released Thu Apr 03 2008
- Fixed VPATH building of documentation.
- Fixed bug in numerical evaluation of multiple polylogarithms for arguments equal to certain roots of unity (thanks to Jianqiang Zhao).
- Fixed check for memory leakage in parser.
- Made internal function coerce() standard compliant.
- Improved lsolve() of systems containing non-numeric coefficients.
- Improved automatic test programs. Now they work on MinGW and Cygwin as well.
Version 1.4.1 released Wed Nov 21 2007
- Fixed memory leak in ginac_yylex().
- Fixed memory leaks in mul::eval() and power::eval().
- Fixed macro checking for version of libreadline (Mac OS X).
- Fixed broken preprocessor instruction in excompiler.cpp.
- Fixed broken module loading in excompiler.cpp.
- info(info_flags::has_indices) now works for sums and products.
- Improved mul::expand().
- Improved CLN output.
Version 1.3.9 released Wed Nov 21 2007
Backporting bug-fix release!
- Fixed memory leak in ginac_yylex().
- Fixed memory leaks in mul::eval() and power::eval().
- Fixed macro checking for version of libreadline (Mac OS X).
- info(info_flags::has_indices) now works for sums and products.
- Improved CLN output.
Version 1.4.0 released Fri Aug 31 2007
- New tinfo mechanism.
- Removed rtt from class symbol.
- Faster archiving by adding a map from strings to indices in the atoms vector.
- Improved unarchiving: algorithms order N instead of order N^2.
- Added compile function, excompiler class.
- Added exset type.
- Added step function to GiNaCs built-in functions.
- Added is_polynomial() method.
- Added real_part() and imag_part() methods.
- Added matrix::is_zero_matrix() method.
- Added evalm() method to pseries class.
- Improved dummy index renaming.
- Many improvements for class clifford.
- New flag for positive symbols/numbers, added possymbol class.
- Added programming examples in doc/examples
Version 1.3.8 released Tue Aug 28 2007
- Drop support of ginac-config and ginac.m4. Please use pkg-config instead.
- atan2(y,x) branch cut correction.
- Fixed bug in series expansion.
- Additional transformations for mul and power.
- Clifford units now honor representation labels.
- Correct csrc output for idx and fderivative.
- Improved handling of convergence transformationis for Li/G.
- Fix compilation issues with prereleases of GCC 4.3.
- info_flags::expanded added.
- input_parser also accepts pow().
- texinfo.tex removed from package.
Version 1.3.7 released Mon Feb 05 2007
- Fixed bug in expansion of power.
- Fixed bugs in functions S() (infinite loop), H() and zeta() (wrong results).
- Rebuilt bison related files with bison version 2.3 (fixes parse error bugs).
- Improved power::eval().
- Improved libreadline detection.
Version 1.3.6 released Wed Dec 13 2006
- Better worst case behavior in heuristic gcd.
- Improved collecting for sparse multivariate polynomials.
- Improved collect_common_factors.
- Fixed bug in numerical evaluation of multiple polylogs.
- Fixed numerical integration of complex functions.
- Fixed bug in tensor::replace_contr_index().
Version 1.3.5 released Thu Aug 17 2006
- Re-built bison related files that caused bugs with gcc 4.
- Fixed bugs in fderivative::match_same_type(), expairseq::match(), expand_dummy_sum(), and expairseq::map().
- Fixed template specialization for class container to be gcc 4.2 compliant.
- Output in csrc mode is now -x instead of -1.0*x.
- Fixed tutorial and reference generation in html/pdf/ps format.
- Modified autotool configuration to allow for compilation on MinGW.
- Debian packaging files updated.
Version 1.3.4 released Wed Apr 12 2006
- More general index dimensions are now possible.
- Improved algebraic substitutions.
- Fixed wrong matching in .has().
- Fixed bug in differentiation of a power.
- collect_common_factors also works with negative powers of common factors now.
- Code clean-up and preparations for upcoming cln 1.2.
Version 1.3.3 released Mon Oct 24 2005
- Fixed bug occuring in algebraic substitutions with expressions involving indices.
- Fixed bug that selected the wrong algorithm for determinants of purely numeric matrices with at least one floating point element.
- Fixed bug in function H() that caused an infinite recursion for arguments around +-I.
- Fixed const-correctness in printing handler for GCC 4.0.2.
- Made lookup in adaptivesimpson() precision-aware.
- Added series expansion for functions (classical) Li and S around x==0.
- Added fsolve() numerical univariate real-valued function solver.
- Added functions sub_matrix() and reduced_matrix().
- Small cleanups. Less warnings with latest GCC.
GiNaC/CLN scores second at the "Many Digits" Friendly Competition Thu Oct 6 2005
ERLANGEN, Germany, October 6, 2005 - The GiNaC/CLN hackers, the leading providers of
advanced mathematical software solutions for research and industrial
applications, are proud to announce that their system scored second in
the "Many Digits"
Friendly Competition, held 3rd and 4th October at the Radboud
University in Nijmegen, The Netherlands. Although Richard Kreckel,
former vice president of GiNaC's PR department has retired into
industry, he was available to compete against the world's finest exact
real arithmetic hackers.
"It was a thrilling experience" said Richard Kreckel at a meeting
with press. "I basically started hacking on the competition problems
Monday morning and stopped only an hour before our turn at the
competition Tuesday afternoon. Little sleep compensated only by beer,
coffee and lots of caffeinated peppermints. It was quite similar to
those release parties at University."
Maybe it wasn't enough caffeine, though. The winner at the
competition was the MPFR team headed by Paul Zimmermann. Says Richard
Kreckel: "Well, they certainly cut some corners. They discovered,
coded and tested closed-form solutions for hard iterative problems,
thus being better than anybody else by orders of magnitude. Their
winning is well-deserved. Congratulations!" Other competing systems
were iRRAM, Wolfram's Mathematica, Maple, RealLib, COMP, Few Digits and
Bignum.
Although only provisional
rankings have been published so far, ground-shaking changes in the
results are not expected. The "Many Digits" Friendly Competition was
of purely numerical nature: none of the 24 competition problems called
for symbolic manipulations. Hence, it really was a measure of CLN's
numerical power, rather than GiNaC's symbolic flexibility. Bruno
Haible, the original author of the CLN library could not be reached
for a statement. It is assumed that he is busy hunting down bugs in
several dozen GNU software packages at the same time. He has all the
time. After all, he has retired to industry, too.
Version 1.3.2 released Mon Jul 11 2005
- GCD avoids to produce expanded expressions.
- Fixed bug in expanding expressions containing dummy indices.
- Fixed static initialization order bug.
- collect_common_factors now works with powers.
- Modernized configuration scripts.
Version 1.3.1 released Wed May 5 2005
- integral() and eval_integ() can be used from ginsh.
- Integrals can be series-expanded.
- Fixed a library initialization problem.
- GiNaC compiles from tarball even if lex/flex is missing.
- Fixed bugs in canonicalize_clifford(), clifford_prime() and clifford_to_lst().
- clifford_moebius_map(), remove_dirac_ONE() and LaTeX output of Clifford
objects now care about representation labels.
- Fixed bug in gcd().
- Better output for slashed expressions
Version 1.3.0 released Tue Oct 19 2004
- The Clifford classes have been generalized to allow working with Clifford algebras generated by arbitrary symmetric tensors or matrices. Also, a lot of new functions for Clifford algebras have been added, including automorphisms and Moebius transformations.
- Added some basic symbolic and numeric integration facilities.
- The multiple polylogarithm Li() now evaluates numerically for arbitrary arguments.
- New functions G(a,y) and G(a,s,y) added (another notation for multiple polylogarithms).
Version 1.2.4 released Tue Oct 12 2004
- Added ex::unitcontprim() to compute the unit, content, and primitive parts of a polynomial in one go.
- binomial(n, k) evaluates for non-integer arguments n.
- Li(2,x) now evaluates for +-I.
- Optimized Li(2,x).
- Fixed bug in Li(n,x) (if Li(2,x) was calculated with high precision the enlargement of the look-up table caused a segmentation fault).
- Fixed another bug in the series expansion of powers, and a bug in power::info().
Version 1.2.3 released Fri Aug 13 2004
- Added variants of dirac_trace() and color_trace() that take the trace over more than one representation label by specifying a set or list of labels.
- diracgamma::contract_with() uses Chisholm identities in 4 dimensions to produce more compact results.
- Fixed a bug in the series expansion of powers.
- The --enable-html-doc and --enable-ps-doc configure options are gone. Documentation in HTML, DVI, PostScript, and PDF formats is now built with make html, make dvi, make ps, and make pdf, respectively. The only documentation that gets built by default are the tutorial in .info format and the manpages.
Version 1.2.2 released Tue Aug 3 2004
- Added const_preorder_iterator and const_postorder_iterator classes (and associated methods ex::pre/postorder_begin/end()) providing tree traversal with iterators.
- Fixed the LaTeX output of the varidx class.
- Fixed bugs in series expansion and complex conjugation.
- (p.i*p.i).get_free_indices() returns the correct result () instead of (.i).
- Symbolic functions without any eval(), evalf() etc. functions now work properly.
- integer_content(), content(), and primpart() now also work for polynomials with rational coefficients (calculating the LCM of coefficients' denominators).
- Added method matrix::rank().
- Added function resultant().
- Added integer_content() function to ginsh.
Version 1.2.1 released Fri Apr 23 2004
- Fixed infinite recursion in atan2_evalf() and improved atan2_eval().
- Added automatic evaluations for trigonometric functions with negative arguments (e.g. sin(-2) -> -sin(2)).
- Fixed a static initialization order goof-up.
- Fixed various bugs in series expansion.
Version 1.2.0 released Fri Mar 19 2004
This version is not binary compatible to 1.1.x, but source compatible unless
you are using obsolete 1.1.x features or implement your own algebraic classes.
- Added a structure<T> template class for the easy creation of user-defined algebraic classes.
- Added support for (acyclic) visitors, to allow cleaner implementations of algebraic algorithms.
- Added a const_iterator class that can be used instead of op()/nops().
- Completely revamped the implementation of expression output. It is now possible to add new output formats, to change the behavior of predefined formats at run-time, and to have different output styles for algebraic functions.
- Symbols can be made non-commutative.
- Added a method ex::conjugate() and a function conjugate() for complex conjugation. Symbols can be declared as real or complex-valued.
- Improved the speed of subs(), normal(), to_rational() and to_polynomial() by the use of maps instead of lists. The old forms subs(const lst & ls, const lst & lr, unsigned options) and to_rational/to_polynomial(lst & repl) are still available for compatibility, but using the new forms subs(const exmap & m, unsigned options) and to_rational/to_polynomial(exmap & repl) is more efficient, especially when the number of replacements is large.
- quo(), rem(), prem(), sprem(), decomp_rational(), unit(), content(), primpart() and matrix::charpoly() now take a const ex & instead of a const symbol &.
- Redundant expressions (two ex pointing to different objects are found to be equal in compare()) are now actively deleted/fused to conserve memory and speed up subsequent comparisons. This behavior can be suppressed on a per-object level with status_flags::not_shareable. Lists and matrices are not shareable by default.
- Lots of internal streamlining and optimizations.
- Caveats for class implementors:
- basic::copy() and basic::destroy() are gone; classes derived from basic can use the defaults for the assignment operator and copy constructor.
- basic::subs(), basic::normal(), basic::to_rational() and basic::to_polynomial() take exmap objects instead of lists.
- basic::subs() now descends into subexpressions (if accessible via nops()/op()/let_op()). If you have a custom implementation of subs() that calls basic::subs() after substituting subexpressions, this needs to be changed to a call to subs_one_level().
- lst::thislst() and exprseq::thisexprseq() renamed to thiscontainer().
- thiscontainer() and associated constructors now take a std::auto_ptr.
- Overloading basic::print() is now deprecated. You should use print_func<>() class options instead.
Version 1.1.7 released Thu Mar 11 2004
- Fixed a bug in canonicalize_clifford().
- Series expansion now works predictably. All terms with the exponent of the expansion variable smaller than the given order are calculated exactly. If the series is not terminating, the Order function is (at least) of the given order.
Version 1.1.6 released Thu Jan 22 2004
- Added a function option dummy() which means “no options”. This simplifies the implementation of symbolic functions which are not to be further evaluated.
- Removed a bug in the numerical evaluation of Li() that caused the system to hang for certain parameter combinations.
- Fixed a bug in the calculation of hash values for indices that could lead to wrong results or bogus error messages from simplify_indexed().
- Fixed a bug in the evaluation of harmonic polylogarithms for complex arguments with positive imaginary part.
Version 1.1.5 released Wed Nov 5 2003
- Harmonic polylogarithms now numerically evaluate for arbitrary arguments (parameter must still be positive integers).
- The zeta function now can also be given a lst as a parameter in which case it becomes a multiple zeta value. The use of mZeta is deprecated.
- The order of parameters for the multiple polylogarithm has been corrected.
- Documentation for the nested sums functions zeta, harmonic polylog, multiple polylog, etc. has been added.
Version 1.1.4 released Fri Oct 17 2003
- Lists and matrices can now be initialized from comma-separated lists of expressions, like this:
lst l;
l = x, 2, y, x+y;
matrix M(3, 3);
M = x, y, 0,
-y, x, 0,
0, 0, 1;
This is both faster and produces much smaller code than the old constructors lst(ex, ex, ...) and matrix(unsigned, unsigned, lst), especially in the case of matrices, and is now the recommended way to create these objects.
- The function mZeta now evaluates much faster for arbitrary parameters. The harmonic and multiple polylogarithms evaluate considerably faster and check for convergence. The order of parameters for the harmonic polylogarithm has been corrected.
Version 1.1.3 released Fri Aug 22 2003
- Added new symbolic functions for better integration with nestedsums: (multiple) polylogarithm Li(), Nielsen's generalized polylogarithm S(), harmonic polylogarithm H(), and multiple zeta value mZeta().
- New exhashmap<T> template intended as a drop-in replacement for std::map<ex, T, ex_is_less> using GiNaC's hashing algorithms.
Version 1.1.2 released Mon Aug 11 2003
- Fixed a bug in the unarchiving of sums and products: terms were not reordered in a canonical way.
- Fixed a bug in normal()/numer_denom(): denominator was not made unit normal if it was a simple number.
- Improved the speed of subs() in some cases.
Version 1.1.1 released Wed Jun 18 2003
- lst (and exprseq) provide iterators for read-only element access. For sequential access this is one order faster than using op().
- Implemented relational::subs() (this was done in 1.0.9 but inadvertently omitted from the 1.1 branch).
- pole_error and do_taylor are available to library users.
- Added on-line help and Tab-completion for print(), iprint(), print_latex() and print_csrc() in ginsh.
Version 1.1.0 released Thu Apr 3 2003
This version is not binary compatible to 1.0.x, but source compatible unless
you are using obsolete 1.0.x features or implement your own algebraic classes.
- Added stream manipulators dflt, latex, python, python_repr, tree, csrc, csrc_float, csrc_double, csrc_cl_N, index_dimensions and no_index_dimensions to control the output format. Calling basic::print() directly is now deprecated.
- subs() accepts an optional options argument. The option subs_option::subs_algebraic enables “smart” substitutions in products and powers.
- The scalar_products mechanism allows the specification of an index dimension.
- Added ex::to_polynomial().
- Removed deprecated macros is_ex_a, is_ex_exactly_a and friends for good.
- Removed dirac_gamma6/7().
- Made the hashing more simple and efficient.
- Caveats for class implementors:
- basic::subs(): third argument changed from bool to unsigned
- unarchiving constructor and basic::unarchive(): const removed from second argument
- basic::let_op() should only be implemented if write access to subexpressions is desired
- simplify_ncmul() renamed to eval_ncmul()
- simplified_ncmul() renamed to hold_ncmul()
- nonsimplified_ncmul() renamed to reeval_ncmul()
Version 1.0.14 released Sat Mar 1 2003
- Improved the C-source output: complex numbers are printed correctly (using the STL complex<> template or cln::complex()), rational numbers use cl_RA() in the CLN output, and small integers are printed in a more compact format (e.g. 2.0 instead of 2.0000000e+00).
- function_options::set_return_type() and function_options::do_not_evalf_params() now actually work.
Version 1.0.13 released Mon Jan 27 2003
- Contracting epsilon tensors with Euclidean indices now works.
- Improved dummy index symmetrization in sums.
- Added dirac_gammaL/R(), which can be used instead of dirac_gamma6/7() but are single objects, to allow for a more compact notation of Dirac strings.
- Powers with negative numeric exponents are printed as fractions in the LaTeX output.
- Added symbolic_matrix() for the convenient creation of matrices filled with symbols.
- Added collect_common_factors() which collects common factors from the terms of sums.
- simplify_indexed() converts gamma~mu*p.mu to p\.
Version 1.0.12 released Wed Oct 30 2002
- Fixed a bug in power::expand() that could produce invalid expressions.
- The input parser no longer ignores extra data following accepted input.
- Improved the CLN C-source output (integers are printed as integers, and floating point numbers include the precision).
- Fixed a problem in the LaTeX-output of negative fractions.
- Added print_latex() and print_csrc() to ginsh.
- The sprem() function is now public.
Version 1.0.11 released Wed Sep 18 2002
- Fixed a possible memory corruption in contractions of indexed objects with delta or metric tensors.
- Computing the derivative of a power series object with respect to a symbol that is not the expansion variable now works correctly.
- Several bugfixes in code generation.
Version 1.0.10 released Tue Jul 24 2002
- Powers of indexed objects are now parenthesized correctly in LaTeX output.
- Input parser handles indices (they have to be specified in the same list as the symbols).
- Added some limited support for subspaces in the idx and tensor classes.
- Fixed a bug in canonicalize() (antisymmetric canonicalization of an already sorted list containing two or more equal objects failed to return 0).
Version 1.0.9 released Tue Jun 11 2002
- simplify_indexed() now raises/lowers dummy indices to canonicalize the index variance. This allows some simplifications that weren't possible before, like eps~a.b~c~d*X.a*X~b -> 0 and X.a~a-X~a.a -> 0.
- Implemented relational::subs().
- Fixed bug in simplify_ncmul() for clifford objects.
Version 1.0.8 released Sun Mar 31 2002
- Improvements in memory usage of the expand() methods.
Version 1.0.7 released Mon Mar 18 2002
Yet another bugfix-only release.
- Fixed LaTeX output of indexed and matrix objects.
- Fixed matrix::pow(n) for n==0 and added helper functions to create unit matrices ex unit_matrix(unsigned, unsigned).
Version 1.0.6 released Mon Mar 4 2002
Yet another bugfix-only release.
- (x+1).subs(x==x-1) now returns the correct result x instead of x-1.
Version 1.0.5 released Sun Jan 27 2002
Another bugfix-only release.
- (l)degree(s), coeff(s, n) and collect(s) were extended to accept expressions of any class (except add/mul/ncmul/numeric) for “s”. They should even work if “s” is a power object, as long as the exponent is non-integer, but with some limitations. For example, you can collect(a*2^x+b*2^x,2^x) to get (a+b)*2^x, but degree(2^(3*x), 2^x) yields 0 instead of 3).
- Fixed a small output bug.
Version 1.0.4 released Thu Jan 24 2002
Like all 1.0.
n-versions, it is binary compatible. In CVS, there is a new branch now,
where binary compatibility is not an issue.
- Speedup in expand().
- Faster Bernoulli numbers.
- Some minor bugfixes and documentation updates.
Version 1.0.3 released Fri Dec 21 2001
This is yet another bugfix release with binary compatibility to earlier 1.0 versions.
- Fixed a bug where quo() would call vector::reserve() with a negative argument.
- Fixed several bugs in code generation.
Version 1.0.2 released Wed Dec 19 2001
This is another bugfix release with binary compatibility to earlier 1.0 versions.
- Input parser recognizes sqrt(), which is also used in the output.
- divide(a,b,q) only modifies q if the division succeeds; also divide(a,b,a) works now.
- Fixed small bug in dummy index renaming which could cause it to not recognize renamable indices in some cases.
- power::degree() and power::ldegree() throw an exception when encountering a non-integer exponent.
- Added output-support for Python bindings.
Version 1.0.1 released Thu Nov 22 2001
This is a bugfix release retaining full compatibility with version 1.0.0.
- Function sqrfree() handles a few more cases now.
- Class relational supports real canonical ordering now.
- Handle obscene libreadline version numbers when building ginsh.
Version 1.0.0 released Tue Nov 6 2001
MAINZ, Germany, November 6, 2001 - The GiNaC hackers, the leading providers of
advanced mathematical software solutions for research and industrial
applications, loudly announce the availability of GiNaC version 1.0.
GiNaC stands for “GiNaC is not a CAS”, i.e. not a
Computer Algebra System. This is reminiscent to the term GNU, which
stands for “GNU is not Unix”, yet GNU systems widely define Unix
today. It is a C++ class-library that allows certain common symbolic
manipulations to be expressed directly in that language.
“This release is going to change a whole lot of things” says
Richard Kreckel, vice president of GiNaC's PR department. “Competing
closed-source systems like Mathematica and Maple must be considered
obsolete now and will surely soon fall into oblivion -- Macsyma
already has.” Asked whether GiNaC can really
compete with all the fancy features and gimmicks found in those
systems he replied: “Hey, there is always room for version 2.0 and the
next generation!”
Alexander Frink, vice president of GiNaC's sales department, could not be reached
for a statement. He was reckoned to be busy encashing donations from
millions of joyous users overwhelmed with enthusiasm. GiNaC is free software and licensed under the
GNU general public license (GPL).
“Having a truly scalable symbolic system is going to solve many of
todays problems” says Christian Bauer, vice president of the research
and development department. “Applications range from pure maths and
physics over geological surveys, long-term stock options and weather
forecasts to such fields as wine-making and Japanese cuisine.” The
newly released version 1.0 contains “absolutely no significant changes
relative to the last version whatsoever” according to Bauer. Asked
how he sees further development he crypticly proclaimed “We are simply
going to do what we did with the Macintosh: We emulate all other
systems, including their bugs.”
Instructions how to download and install GiNaC on a computer system can be found at
<https://www.ginac.de/Download.html>.
Also, it comes pre-bundled with several distributions of the popular
Linux operating system as well as with FreeBSD. Because of this
dominant position on the consumers' computer desktops the US
department of justice (DOJ) is considering filing an antitrust
law-suit. “Okay, Microsoft got away with this practice, but we are
not going to tolerate imitators”, said DOJ attorney general John
Ashcroft at a meeting with press.
Germany's foreign minister Joschka Fischer delayed his trip to meet
Palestinian president Jassir Arafat to stop in Mainz and congratulate
the GiNaC folks for
their release on behalf of Germany's chancellor Gerhard Schroeder.
IT-industry friendly Mr. Schroeder was said to be busy “getting the
beast installed” on his PC. “This new release is going to have a
tremendous impact on global stability” Mr. Fischer said. “We have
observed how politicians and suspected terrorists alike have become
addicted to GiNaC and been
converted to coding machines -- in a noble sense. Wherever they find
a PC they start emitting mesmeric steams and then the miracle of code
generation happens.”
Version 0.9.4 released Thu Sep 20 2001
- Functions have better support for external scripting languages.
- Interface cleanups and bugfixes.
- Fix silly bug in evalf() that prevented things like 2^Pi being computed.
Version 0.9.3 released Tue Aug 16 2001
- Series expansion now much more consistent for small order expansion.
- lsolve() accepts algorithmic hint as parameter.
Version 0.9.2 released Tue Jul 31 2001
- Epsilon tensor is more functional.
- simplify_indexed() is better at detecting expressions that vanish for symmetry reasons.
- Several little bugfixes and consistency enhancements.
Version 0.9.1 released Wed Jun 27 2001
- Ctors of class numeric are not explicit any more. All built-in callers for pseudofunctions are now templated and default to ex arguments which relaxes the need for explicit ctors.
- New functions/methods:
- find()
- remove_first(), remove_last(), sort(), unique() for objects of class lst
- symmetrize_cyclic()
- decomp_rational()
- Instead of just totally symmetric or antisymmetric, complex symmetries can now be defined for indexed objects. Symmetries are described by a tree of symmetry objects that is constructed with the sy_none(), sy_symm(), sy_anti() and sy_cycl() functions. The symmetry of a function with respect to its arguments can also be defined (this is currently only used for the Beta function).
- Generalized map() to take a function object instead of a function pointer. This allows passing an arbitrary number of additional state to the function being called.
- color_trace(), dirac_trace(), diff(), expand(), evalf() and normal() work better with container classes, e.g. using color_trace() on a relation will take the trace on both sides, using diff() on a matrix differentiates every element etc.
- diff() works properly with non-commutative products and indexed objects.
- New option flag expand_function_args for expand().
- Supplement some (now deprecated) macros by inlined template functions:
- is_of_type(foo, type) -> is_a<type>(foo)
- is_ex_of_type(foo, type) -> is_a<type>(foo)
- is_exactly_of_type(foo, type) -> is_exactly_a<type>(foo)
- is_ex_exactly_of_type(foo, type) -> is_exactly_a<type>(foo)
- ex_to_foobar(baz) -> ex_to<foobar>(baz)
- rem(c, p[x], x) (c: numeric, p[x]: polynomial) erroneously returned p[x] instead of c.
- Small bugfixes in pattern matching.
- Updated libtool to version 1.4.
Version 0.9.0 released Thu Jun 7 2001
- In the output and in ginsh, lists are now delimited by { } braces, and matrices are delimited by single [ ] brackets.
- simplify_indexed() renames dummy indices so, e.g., a.i*a.i+a.j*a.j gets
simplified to 2*a.i*a.i (or 2*a.j*a.j).
- New functions/methods:
- canonicalize_clifford() (helpful when comparing expressions containing Dirac matrices)
- symmetrize() and antisymmetrize()
- numer_denom() (return numerator and denominator in one call)
- map() (apply function to subexpressions)
- evalm() (evaluate sums, products and integer powers of matrices)
- Added a new function match() for performing pattern matching. subs() and has() also accept patterns as arguments. A pattern can be any expression, optionally containing wildcard objects. These are constructed with the call wild() and are denoted as $0, $1 etc. in the output and in ginsh.
- Positive integer powers of non-commutative expressions (except matrices) are automatically expanded.
- Removed cint subdirectory, ginaccint is a separate package now due to packaging considerations.
- Several little bugfixes.
Version 0.8.3 released Fri May 11 2001
- color and clifford classes are functional and documented.
- New spinidx class for dotted/undotted indices.
- Predefined spinor metric tensor (created by spinor_metric()).
- Symbols can have a LaTeX name, e.g. symbol s("s", "\\sigma");
- LaTeX output of indexed objects is much nicer.
- Fix some build-problems (with recent libreadline).
- Semantics of arithmetic operators now follows the C++ rules more strictly.
Version 0.8.2 released Tue Apr 24 2001
- degree(), ldegree(), coeff(), lcoeff(), tcoeff()
and collect() work with non-symbols as the second argument in ginsh.
- the argument to collect() can be a list of objects in which case the
result is either a recursively collected polynomial, or a polynomial in
a distributed form with terms like coeff*x1^e1*...*xn^en, as specified by
the second argument to collect().
- Several bugfixes (including a nasty memory leak in .normal()).
- class matrix: solve() doesn't call algorithms redundantly any more
and inverse() falls back to solve() which works in more general cases.
Version 0.8.1 released Mon Apr 16 2001
- degree(), ldegree(), coeff(), lcoeff(), tcoeff() and collect() can nowbe used with constants, functions and indexed expressions as well, so you can use it to collect by powers of Pi or sin(x), or to find the coefficient of gamma~0.
Limitations:
- it only works with symbols, constants, functions and indexed expressions, trying to find the coefficient of, e.g., x^2 or x+y won't work;
- it does not know about dummy index summations; the coefficient of gamma~0 in p.mu*gamma~mu should be p.0 but is returned as 0;
- using coeff(), tcoeff(), lcoeff() or collect() on elements of noncommutative products might return wrong or surprising results.
- subs() no longer only substitutes symbols and indices but performs
a more general “syntactic substitution”, i.e. it substitutes whole
objects in sub- expressions. You can subs((a+b)^2,a+b==3) and
get 9, but subs(a+b+c,a+b==3) doesn't do
anything.
Limitations:
- substituting numerics (subs(expr, 2==4)) will not replace then in all occurences; in general, you shouldn't substitute numerics, though.
- Added preliminary (re)implementations of color and clifford classes.
- simplify_indexed(): contraction of symmetric and antisymmetric tensors is zero.
- Replaced the various print*() member functions by a single
print() that takes a print_context object that determines the
output formatting. This should make it easier to add more output
types, such as LaTeX output, which is based on work by Stefan
Weinzierl.
- Added functions to retrieve the properties stored in archive objects outside of unarchive() (for printing or debugging purposes).
- Some bugfixes (indexed objects, archive writing).
- .collect() on non-polynomials is now algebraically correct.
Version 0.8.0 released Sat Mar 24 2001
- Complete revamp of indexed objects. Instead of multiple classes
for indexed things and their indices there is now only one
indexed class and two types of indices: idx for
simple indices and varidx for indices with variance. There
are predefined delta, epsilon and metric tensors, and a function
simplify_indexed() that performs canonicalization and dummy
index summations. Matrix objects can be indexed for doing simple
linear algebra.
- Added an option expand_indexed to expand() to
perform expansion of indexed objects like (a+b).i -> a.i + b.i.
- Renamed get_indices() to get_free_indices(),
which no longer returns dummy indices and checks the consistency of
indices in sums.
- sqrfree() factorization fixed and improved syntactically.
- subs() works on matrices.
- Matrices can be constructed from flat list of elements; diagonal
matrices can be constructed from list of diagonal elements with
diag_matrix().
- Fixed memory leak in expand().
- operator% for objects of class ncmul has gone. Use
operator* now for that case too, which is much more natural.
Version 0.7.3 released Wed Feb 28 2001
- Several bugfixes and minor performance tunings.
- Added a section to the tutorial about adding new algebraic classes to GiNaC.
- Closed many in-source documentation gaps.
GiNaC passes Fermat Test 1 Sun Feb 25 2001
MAINZ, Germany, February 25, 2001
(ap) - The GiNaC group, the leading provider of advanced mathematical
software solutions for research and industrial applications, is proud
to announce that its system passes what is known as the Fermat Test
one. The test is to simplify a large rational function in twelve
symbolic variables to zero. That rational function arises in computer
image analysis in conjunction with a solution to the “Recognition
Problem for Six Lines”: From a three-dimensional object, six lines are
extracted and from those six lines, nine three-dimensional invariants
are computed as a kind of signature. Given a two-dimensional picture
of some possibly different object from an arbitrary perspective the
question is whether the two objects are the same. Up until now, the
simplification of the rational functions arising there could only be
performed by Robert H. Lewis' system Fermat, a special-purpose
system designed for polynomial arithmetic. The test was hence put up
as a challenge for other systems.
A smaller version of this test is known as test N from a suite of
benchmarks published by Michael Wester and Robert Lewis on a number of
Computer Algebra Systems. Robert Lewis comments: “test N on the test
suite is the smaller or ‘reduced problem’” and “[it] comes from the
paper mentioned on my web page that I wrote with Peter Stiller,
‘Solving the recognition problem for six lines using the Dixon
resultant,’ Mathematics and Computers in Simulation 49 (1999)
205-219.”
“When we saw that the smaller test can be done in 15 minutes on a
commodity PC running our system we had to try the full sized problem.”
says Richard Kreckel, vice president of GiNaC's PR department. “We
found that without having to resort to any tricks it runs through in
about three hours and a half using approximately 500MB of memory.” And
Christian Bauer, vice president of the research and development
department, adds “Now let's open the champagne!”
Version 0.7.2 released Sat Feb 17 2001
- Several bugfixes in power series expansion, one of them critical.
Version 0.7.1 released Wed Feb 7 2001
- Fix problems with Cint that were caused by CLN's overloaded operator new.
- Fix compilation errors with GCC3.
- normal() handles large sums of fractions better and normalizes the exponent
of power expressions.
- expand() always expands the exponent and transforms x^(a+b) -> x^a*x^b.
- Some bugfixes of series expansion around branch cuts of special functions.
Version 0.7.0 released Fri Dec 15 2000
This version requires CLN 1.1 now. The reason is that CLN 1.1 is not compatible with
earlier versions of CLN (it's been put into a namespace).
- Class numeric doesn't use an indirect pointer to the actual representation
any more. This is a speedup.
- mul::expand() was reengineered to not allocate temporary excess memory.
- Non-integer powers of a symbol are treated as constants by (l)degree() and
coeff(). Using these functions on an expression containing such powers used
to fail with an internal error message. The side-effect is that collect()
can be used on expressions which are not polynomials.
- Added a man page for the ginac-config script.
- Ctor of numeric from char* honors Digits.
Version 0.6.4 released Thu Aug 10 2000
No new functionality was introduced. During the last weeks we ran the
complete check-suite thousands of times. We were somewhat surprised to find
a couple of nasty bugs. Those have been killed and now the check-suite doesn't
seem to find any more. Until somebody decides to re-introduce them...
- Complete revamp of methods in class matrix. Some redundant
(and poor) implementations of elimination schemes were thrown out.
The code is now highly orthogonal, more flexible and much more efficient.
- Some long standing and quite nasty bugs were discovered and fixed in the
following functions: add::normal(), heur_gcd(),
sr_gcd() and Order_eval().
Version 0.6.3 released Tue Jul 25 2000
This minor release breaks binary compatibilty while maintaining source compatibility. It incorporates many bugfixes and added features. As for
Cint, there is no progress: the current version 5.14.44 (released by
CERN today) is somewhat broken, see the file
INSTALL.
- Derivatives are now assembled in a slightly different manner (i.e. they might 'look' different on first sight). Under certain circumstances this can result in a dramatic speedup because it gives hashing a better chance, especially when computing higher derivatives.
- Some series expansions of built-in functions have been reengineered. (Probably not for the last time, though.)
- The algorithm for computing determinants can be chosen by the user. See ginac/flags.h and ginac/matrix.h.
- The Dilogarithm (Li2) now has floating point evaluation, derivative and a proper series expansion.
- Namespace 'std' cleanly disentangled, as demanded by ISO/EIC 14882-1998(E).
- Some minor bugfixes, one major lsolve()-bugfix and documentation updates.
Version 0.6.2 released Wed Jun 21 2000
Several minor bugfixes in the library. The Cint interface has received some
cleanup again: ginaccint.bin is now launched by a binary executable
instead of by a script. This allows us to write #!-scripts. A small test
suite for GiNaC-cint was added, because after the last release some very nasty
(and now fixed) problems were detected.
Version 0.6.1 released Thu May 18 2000
Nothing has changed in the library itself. There was, however, a
major cleanup in the Cint interface. ginaccint may now link
dynamically against libginac, even with the namespace
switched on (i.e. the library need not be build twice any more). The
required version of Cint is now 5.14.38. Several minor bugfixes where
release 0.6.0 had some problems at installation.
Version 0.6.0 released Thu May 11 2000
This is a major release that incorporates some long-planned changes and new features, listed below:
- Important interface change: Several interface changes make programs written with GiNaC
much clearer but break compatibility with older versions:
- f(x).series(x,p[,o]) -> f(x).series(x==p,o)
- series(f(x),x,p[,o]) -> series(f(x),x==p,o)
- gamma() -> tgamma() (The true Gamma function, there is now also
log(tgamma()), called lgamma(), in accord with ISO/IEC 9899:1999.)
- EulerGamma -> Euler
- #include'ing ginac.h defines the preprocessor symbols GINACLIB_MAJOR_VERSION,
GINACLIB_MINOR_VERSION, and GINACLIB_MICRO_VERSION with the respective GiNaC
library version numbers.
- Expressions can be constructed from strings like this: ex e("2*x+y", lst(x, y));
- ex::to_rational() provides a way to extend the domain of functions like
gcd() and divide() that only work on polynomials or rational functions (the
good old ex::subs() method reverses this process)
- Calling diff() on a function that has no derivative defined
returns the inert derivative function Derivative.
- Several new timings in the check target. Some of them may be rather rude at your machine, feel free to interrupt them.
Version 0.5.4 released Wed Mar 15 2000
Along with a number of bugfixes and performance improvements the
behaviour of .evalf() was changed for powers, series and so
on: It doesn't harm any exponents now, which leads to fewer surprises.
Also, the checks were completely restructured into three parts: 1)
exams (small regression tests with predefined input), 2)
checks (some coherence checks with random input) and 3)
timings (benchmarking but also for coherence).
Version 0.5.3 released Wed Feb 23 2000
A more flexible scheme for registering functions was implemented, that
allows for easy remembering, too.
Version 0.5.2 released Wed Feb 16 2000
This release fixes the packaging-problem in the ill-fated release
0.5.1. Besides that it has only very minor changes.
Version 0.5.1 released Mon Feb 14 2000
A new release has been uploaded. It fixes a couple of small bugs.
Warning: The package is slightly broken. To make it work you need to have
autoheader installed and run it.
Version 0.5.0 released Mon Feb 7 2000
This major new release has been uploaded today, the major changes being:
- Expressions can be written (“archived”) to files and read therefrom.
- Addition of GiNaC-cint, which lets you write complete programs in
an interactive shell-like manner in your favoured programming
language (C++).
Version 0.4.1 released Mon Dec 13 1999
A second public alpha-release has been uploaded. Changes include:
- Series Expansion of Gamma function and some other trigonometric functions at their poles works now.
- Many more evaluations of special functions at points where exact results exist.
- info_flags::rational doesn't return true for complex extensions any more -
use info_flags::crational for the old behaviour. info_flags::integer and
info_flags::cinteger work similarly, the same holds for types like
info_flags::rational_polynomial and so on.
Version 0.4.0 released Fri Nov 26 1999
Historic day! We've put the first public alpha-release of
GiNaC on the FTP-Server. Announcements went
to
freshmeat and to several newsgroups.